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The Kyoto Protocol implemented the objective of the UNFCCC to reduce the onset of global warming by reducing greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere to "a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system" Article 2.

The Protocol is based on the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities: it acknowledges that individual countries have different capabilities in combating climate change, owing to economic development , and therefore puts the obligation to reduce current emissions on developed countries on the basis that they are historically responsible for the current levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The Protocol's first commitment period started in and ended in A second commitment period was agreed in , known as the Doha Amendment to the Kyoto Protocol, in which 37 countries have binding targets: Australia , the European Union and its 28 member states , Belarus , Iceland , Kazakhstan , Liechtenstein , Norway , Switzerland , and Ukraine.

Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Ukraine have stated that they may withdraw from the Kyoto Protocol or not put into legal force the Amendment with second round targets. Other developed countries without second-round targets are Canada which withdrew from the Kyoto Protocol in and the United States which has not ratified. As of October , [8] states have accepted the Doha Amendment, while entry into force requires the acceptances of states. Of the 37 countries with binding commitments, 7 have ratified.

The view that human activities are likely responsible for most of the observed increase in global mean temperature "global warming" since the midth century is an accurate reflection of current scientific thinking. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change IPCC, have produced a range of projections of what the future increase in global mean temperature might be. The IPCC projections cover the time period from the beginning of the 21st century to the end of the 21st century.

The range in temperature projections partly reflects different projections of future greenhouse gas emissions. The natural , technical and social sciences can provide information on decisions relating to this objective including the possible magnitude and rate of future climate changes. The main goal of the Kyoto Protocol is to control emissions of the main anthropogenic human-emitted greenhouse gases GHGs in ways that reflect underlying national differences in GHG emissions, wealth, and capacity to make the reductions. These emissions limitation commitments are listed in Annex B of the Protocol.

The Empty Radicalism of the Climate Apocalypse

It set a timetable starting in for negotiations to establish emission reduction commitments for a second commitment period. The ultimate objective of the UNFCCC is the "stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would stop dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. For each of the different anthropogenic GHGs, different levels of emissions reductions would be required to meet the objective of stabilizing atmospheric concentrations see United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations.

Under the Kyoto Protocol, 37 industrialized countries and the European Community the European Union , made up of 15 states at the time of the Kyoto negotiations commit themselves to binding targets for GHG emissions. Under the Protocol, only the Annex I Parties have committed themselves to national or joint reduction targets formally called "quantified emission limitation and reduction objectives" QELRO — Article 4.

The emissions limitations of Annex I Parties varies between different Parties. Emission limits do not include emissions by international aviation and shipping. For most state parties, is the base year for the national GHG inventory and the calculation of the assigned amount. Annex I Parties can use a range of sophisticated "flexibility" mechanisms see below to meet their targets. Annex I Parties can achieve their targets by allocating reduced annual allowances to major operators within their borders, or by allowing these operators to exceed their allocations by offsetting any excess through a mechanism that is agreed by all the parties to the UNFCCC, such as by buying emission allowances from other operators which have excess emissions credits.

The Protocol defines three " flexibility mechanisms " that can be used by Annex I Parties in meeting their emission limitation commitments. The economic basis for providing this flexibility is that the marginal cost of reducing or abating emissions differs among countries.

Economy and Climate Change or Kgb Agent by Ioffe, Michael

At the time of the original Kyoto targets, studies suggested that the flexibility mechanisms could reduce the overall aggregate cost of meeting the targets. The CDM and JI are called "project-based mechanisms," in that they generate emission reductions from projects. The difference between IET and the project-based mechanisms is that IET is based on the setting of a quantitative restriction of emissions, while the CDM and JI are based on the idea of "production" of emission reductions.

The reductions are called " credits " because they are emission reductions credited against a hypothetical baseline of emissions. Only emission reduction projects that do not involve using nuclear energy are eligible for accreditation under the CDM, in order to prevent nuclear technology exports from becoming the default route for obtaining credits under the CDM. Each Annex I country is required to submit an annual report of inventories of all anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions from sources and removals from sinks under UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol.

These countries nominate a person called a "designated national authority" to create and manage its greenhouse gas inventory. Virtually all of the non-Annex I countries have also established a designated national authority to manage their Kyoto obligations, specifically the "CDM process". A number of emissions trading schemes ETS have been, or are planned to be, implemented. One of the environmental problems with IET is the large surplus of allowances that are available.

OECD countries with a deficit could meet their Kyoto commitments by buying allowances from transition countries with a surplus. Unless other commitments were made to reduce the total surplus in allowances, such trade would not actually result in emissions being reduced [47] : 25 see also the section below on the Green Investment Scheme. However, using the GIS is not required under the Kyoto Protocol, and there is no official definition of the term. The proceeds from the AAU sales should be "greened", i. Latvia was one of the front-runners of GISs. Between , which was the first year Clean Development Mechanism CDM projects could be registered, and , the end of the first Kyoto commitment period, the CDM is expected to produce some 1.

The formal crediting period for Joint Implementation JI was aligned with the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol, and did not start until January Carbon Trust, , p. Russia accounts for about two-thirds of these savings, with the remainder divided up roughly equally between the Ukraine and the EU's New Member States.

As noted earlier on , the first-round Kyoto emissions limitation commitments are not sufficient to stabilize the atmospheric concentration of GHGs. Stabilization of atmospheric GHG concentrations will require further emissions reductions after the end of the first-round Kyoto commitment period in Analysts have developed scenarios of future changes in GHG emissions that lead to a stabilization in the atmospheric concentrations of GHGs.

To achieve stabilization, global GHG emissions must peak, then decline. The first period Kyoto emissions limitations can be viewed as a first-step towards achieving atmospheric stabilization of GHGs. Scenarios assessed by Gupta et al. Gupta et al. Projections indicated that by , non-Annex I emissions in several regions Latin America , the Middle East , East Asia , and centrally planned Asia would need to be substantially reduced below "business-as-usual". Projections indicated that by , emissions in all non-Annex I regions would need to be substantially reduced below "business-as-usual".

National emission targets specified in the Kyoto Protocol exclude international aviation and shipping. Changes in sinks and land use can have an effect on the climate, [69] and indeed the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Special Report on Land use, land-use change, and forestry estimates that since a third of global warming has been caused by land use change.

Economic impacts of climate change - Wikipedia

Forest management , cropland management, grazing land management, and revegetation are all eligible LULUCF activities under the Protocol. Article 4. During negotiations, the G represented developing countries. China was not a member of the group but an associate. The Berlin mandate was recognized in the Kyoto Protocol in that developing countries were not subject to emission reduction commitments in the first Kyoto commitment period.

The G77 and China were in favour of strong uniform emission cuts across the developed world. The most vulnerable nations — the Alliance of Small Island States AOSIS — pushed for deep uniform cuts by developed nations, with the goal of having emissions reduced to the greatest possible extent.

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The final targets negotiated in the Protocol are the result of last minute political compromises. The Protocol also reaffirms the principle that developed countries have to pay billions of dollars, and supply technology to other countries for climate-related studies and projects.

Introduction: Scientific Background

One such project is The Adaptation Fund " [84] ", that has been established by the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change to finance concrete adaptation projects and programmes in developing countries that are Parties to the Kyoto Protocol. The protocol left several issues open to be decided later by the sixth Conference of Parties COP6 of the UNFCCC, which attempted to resolve these issues at its meeting in the Hague in late , but it was unable to reach an agreement due to disputes between the European Union who favoured a tougher implementation and the United States, Canada, Japan and Australia who wanted the agreement to be less demanding and more flexible.

In , a continuation of the previous meeting COP6bis was held in Bonn where the required decisions were adopted. After some concessions, the supporters of the protocol led by the European Union managed to get the agreement of Japan and Russia by allowing more use of carbon dioxide sinks. COP7 was held from 29 October through 9 November in Marrakech to establish the final details of the protocol.

The protocol defines a mechanism of "compliance" as a "monitoring compliance with the commitments and penalties for non-compliance. In addition, that country will be suspended from making transfers under an emissions trading program. Lucia and Switzerland. At the end of the signature period, 82 countries and the European Community had signed. Ratification which is required to become a party to the Protocol started on 17 September with ratification of Fiji.

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Countries that did not sign acceded to the convention, which has the same legal effect. As of May , countries and one regional economic organization the EC have ratified the agreement, representing over Andorra non-party to Kyoto Holy See non-party to Kyoto. To become binding in the US, however, the treaty had to be ratified by the Senate , which had already passed the non-binding Byrd-Hagel Resolution , expressing disapproval of any international agreement that did not require developing countries to make emission reductions and "would seriously harm the economy of the United States".

The resolution passed 95—0. When George W. Bush was elected US president in , he was asked by US Senator Chuck Hagel what his administration's position was on climate change. This policy reversal received a massive wave of criticism that was quickly picked up by the international media. Environmental groups blasted the White House, while Europeans and Japanese alike expressed deep concern and regret. In response to this criticism, Bush stated: "I was responding to reality, and reality is the nation has got a real problem when it comes to energy.

As of , the US is the only signatory that has not ratified the Protocol.

As such, for the treaty to go into legal effect without US ratification, it would require a coalition including the EU, Russia, Japan, and small parties. In , Canada, Japan and Russia stated that they would not take on further Kyoto targets. The Harper government prioritized oil sands development in Alberta, and deprioritized the reduction of greenhouse emissions.

Environment minister Peter Kent cited Canada's liability to "enormous financial penalties" under the treaty unless it withdrew. Canada's decision received a generally negative response from representatives of other ratifying countries. It was noted that their projections should be interpreted with caution.